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^1|ltr fl^lel +4e+ =-sr. 7 4dzlE ,rls]+ 'I"lzl flzlE 'Je+ AA "; 7J49tr- Eli gqq 9l+. z}+Eol + zl olE dzlE zlfdxl(free electron)?-l-]. +trI. irB 1-el= Fe9 gz}+eolq. Fe 9zI9 ae-14 dzl9 += Zt)lo)a-, Fe flzI +JE= A*4 oE Eld6}r il+. ?4fl219 ?f aqol ol dzlEg +olBzlE 6Jol e}6I4. Jelus tr? 1-101+ ?ol A, B++flzlEol d=6lq aE4 +lEzI 4^1 E A++ flzlE sldall 9.1.'J 4.zlzl olga}q B++ flz}+llEE Etrl. s sflzl+l E= EtrJ dzlEs B, C$z}+llsz1 a^l= *ql^l Ctlzlel +lEE Etrl. 4sl4 dz} 49 4 dz| ral 1-9 Fe9 fl^l+4 :.aJ 1-10 =+el alg4 ^l+d^lol 015 ole]. ?ol "49219 44rf dzlE + flzl9 +lE"Jg ll+ sld6}= 4ol olq E.l "Jd6x gl= flz}9 44rf +JE-E olE6lq sld+4. 4rl "J6Its ++el aq4 dzlES "l y 6J flzlql +Elzl 9*1. ++.Jg zI+EAl olf,alS,r.l 4dall 91tr|. ole+ ?ol flxI +91= 51. 9l= z}l?dz}9 +4Eg dz|*E(electron cloud)olzl 6Iq, trB 1-111+ aol -d6I= 4t 9l= z}+dz}e+ +d6I= E flzIts dzITE g "J=q ^l-E .Jflol zl*6lq ++4*g 6}al €4. e]+s+El d"Jg aq +E "Je ugajg_E olFB + olq4, "+E "Jgql 3E zlolTl- CzlE dzlE 3s.21 +g *ql^] *g *str gg dg+4. ol4ol ++el 421 "; eg + dB6I = ol-,1 ol4. lq+ ol ult zlfdzlE +44 e-E uN gg gz} rlolE *zl olal gss, sszl =o}4^l g zlel grl+ol dg++ zl-ftdzlg FEg EIEI= Bal gtrl. trIzl^l 9sz1 +9++ dzlE F6I7l 'J=al q q, ++E 4.2)46J3 SszI =g+9 ?zla}Zl €+. .r.al 1-11 =+=Ef