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^1|1tr fl^lel +4e+ =Et 3 olsl Hli+ *Bg=. wa flzlE dz} t zllE 4Erl +q^l =lg4ol +dq il+.lTl tEil= "J=4. :Bzl qE dzl +Htrl "*zlizl 6I+ u.l Brtl qq flzlE d6l (charge) zl +1zyo1 *ol$(positive ion) o-E €4. 5E ca flzits ?g *B9E +z7lg *ol*-o tr €+. Na (a) NadxlrJ e.:g F (b) rol3sl ?l ral 1-3 Na9 E^l4zl F, Na* (c) NaolSel +4 NaolEel +6 E 1-1 fl401 trrl4 +5 @ B+ fl^lflE K L M N o P o H He 1 2 1 2 Li Be B C N o F Ne 3 4 5 6 7 8 I 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I Na Mg AI Si P S CI Ar 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 8 I 8 8 8 8 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 K Ca 19 20 2 2 I 8 8 8 1 2 Sc Ti Cr Mn 21 22 23 24 25 2 2 2 2 2 B 8 8 8 8 I 10 11 13 13 2 2 2 1 2 Fe Co Ni Cu Zn 26 27 28 29 30 2 2 2 2 2 8 8 8 I 8 14 15 16 17 18 2 2 2 1 2 / \