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166 qe=^1 5'J @ d4 tr4zl "JE+ tL4.I^l d4=4 HI€-6I,<] 9+9 z) @ 4_z)4.EEz| ++g z) (l.d+qlE dg- ,J6L7I Czl^l 9*g ,)) @ tEl+i+ 7)E+ a€;I+q d4col ++e z) C rllEJ (pattern) €Col f g z) @ 6=rrlB "l 7)=+4e+ s+IC "l fl$ z) @ sEql Ca SzlPEg t"J6}al Hg z) @ czldol(electromigration)ol Erl+ .Icol +BJ z) (dzldol t d+ql 9aI =|+ Er]lql olzl9= flzlE9 olEg "J+tr}) @ e+Ez}=d9lrl +4"-lol P49zl 9*g z) @ $+Ea+ EzI49 d*ol f g z) @ 4z{4 9 z) 39. O tl*a= ++^l ql g.qo.J eEe-l d*E= *xl E f ql"l oI E+ z) (HI*=ql= Brr Eol trElqqoI ++.) @ 4;tuJEE HI*a ,flE 7)A)= 4*fizlzl z]4t)z) + ql9"l ++. @ d*Ee+ TlEl tr+= ,Jrl B f ql= Al7)71 ++q q ql9 ol aJ+. @ g,e_+ EaE t+ +e rJ+qs ++^l?J + ilgot +trI 40. o +l+= .Ie-l rl*s. =e"l 7I.E.6J z) @ 4_*+47) .llE -E-E ge-tl4= _ E^l6J z) @ +++E +4) +e ol 7I:,6J z) 41. O g?+ElE 6+ (filament evaporation) @ dzlH 64 (electron-beam evaporation) @ =4^l G4 Glash evaporation) @ *g 64 (induction evaporation) @ ^q E'l eJ (sputtering) 42. z}€rl Zl ,{fl+E +ql Ed^=(wire spool, E= E"Jol+ €4(peltet)S E^}6} = +E il+)g F^I6l= *Bol4. oJ 7l Bg dzlH +++ ul.{z}zltr_ _e_gol 41 4E7l u+= B olq+ €4Hls +++ 4ol *^Idq E+ +tL trAzl fl+= *d ol 91trI. 43. rl*s.z} "JA +=ql s.Et +g +l*= LrlE zl;flo1gg- +"J6[g d+g q] 7I6Iq flzlE olgE} ^le oEAl olg50l d*a l-]ls-l s.4ql 35 ,rlzJ us.<] gd'I= E.d€. trI+H= 7l+ql ++9E+ 6I= *Bolrl. 44. @ +ll olg9 sgEeg 414+ + zJ=tl7Jt:l. @ ell "lEl= +l*a LIql B=4.