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^ll 1 = 2 |fl )l=Etr 5el 111 (x-a)z + (1,-b)'2 =r2 ral 3-19 HJ^l=ol rgl ?lel Bl8^l rA 3-20 g-Et+oll el-d Elel "J8^l 99 HJ44E 4dE A+e+ u[{z}zle ol]zl]Efrl(parametric equation)-o -q +E+ E + 9l=Ell [:-H 3-21]ql !-oJ H]e] +o) gEt]E "Jelg d P(x, v)4 gdg 9l = dEol x?4 ol+= zJ 0= uflzNpf-a a6.lE x : r cosd, y :r dinp Q<0 <2tr) g e-+. r= 3-21 trH7HHJ+^loll el-d flel "JE^l loll^11 5l ,llzlltrf9 tr97} [0, 1]"1 9= gE 'llzHtrf4g +61-+' (=ol) 4 (3 -13)ql^l ,llzl]Hf 09 Hel= lo,2zloltrI. "I4r.l [0, 1] 7IE+= t4r1 6itr 0 :2rt4 +A7l CBaJ4. ol +Al= 4 (3-13)ql : rcos2 rt, !: rsin2 rt (0<t<1)g e=+. 6JrJ t : 0.541ri x, y9 #g : -f, y: fSinZ :0 olf+. +rJq ut 4 "J a'Itr x x : rcos 7r f22 4r -x \ (r,r) ,A /<0 : 0 .r=rcos 0 y=rsin d